warming up or warm-up)means active and passive, as well as mental activities of producing an optimal psycho-physical constitution before a physical workout or a sporting event.
Under active warm-up means the active but not at full capacity (only about 50% of the load) Activation of individual muscles or muscle groups. As the target should be regarded primarily the increase of body core temperature, the activation of the cardiovascular system, improved blood circulation and thus nutrient supply of the muscle and the blood flow to the involved cartilage, gaining during the warm-up about 30% of liquid volume and thus greater stress can resist. The risk of injury to the cartilage decreases so by the warm-up. Furthermore, under activation of the cardiovascular system to understand that the body adjusts to it, is needed in which body parts blood. Anyone who has ever been in the gym getting warmed made the chest and trained and moved then to the leg workout is about an incredible heart beat at the beginning, because the legs are still not well supplied with blood and is pumped to the body much blood in the chest and arms (hence the so-called pumping effect, which occurs especially with weight training). The various possibilities are warming up manifold and depend on both the applied sport and the training or performance level of the athlete. Some examples are easy trot, constant running, interval jogging, running exercises, light strength training (without or with low weights), whole body exercise (if it is not just the expansion), rope gymnastics, ball games and partner exercises.
In passive warm-up is defined as passive activities such as: massages, rubs, heat, bathrooms, etc. to loosen the muscles or to increase the skin temperature. This warm-up form is sufficient for that reason alone, but can be used to complement the active warm-up. However, it is recommended due to the rather soothing effect that passive warm-up, this applies only after a kind of performance to relax the muscles and for relaxation. Before a competition is completely discouraged from passive warm-up, because the heart rate falls and it is also placed the spirit in a rather sluggish state.
In mental warm-up meant the mental playing through specific movements, and the kind of confrontation with it. Mental warm-up must always be combined with active warm up and is especially in sports where strength movements (gymnastics, long jump, body building, etc.) is useful. Mental warm-up but must often learn a real and depends heavily on the personality of the athlete.
Warming up increases blood circulation and thus the body temperature.
This leads to increasing muscular function processes, to increase the speed of chemical reactions to speed up the nervous excitability, resulting in the increase of Muskulaturerregbarkeit result and increase metabolic processes. Further, the oxygen delivery is increased by increasing the exchange surface while warming up. The cardiac output increases. This per unit of time is more blood pumped by the muscle and it can be better supplied with oxygen. This, however, also creates a higher demand for oxygen, resulting in a more intense or faster breathing is necessary. In addition, increased heart rate, blood pressure rises, so it comes to adapting the blood circulation. In addition, the amount of blood is increased by the liver releases blood. In addition, there is still influencing the muscle viscosity, which is the measure of the internal friction of the muscles. Thus, the contraction and relaxation of muscles can be improved. This results in increasing the flexibility and expandability, the decline in energy consumption, improve joint mobility, improving coordination and reducing susceptibility to injury. In addition, the nutritional conditions are improved in the articular cartilage, so that it leads to thickening of the cartilage layer and the forces can be absorbed better.
The psychological effects of warming are dependent on the personality of the athlete and the external training circumstances. The effect is to enhance motivation and that private and professional problems of the athlete while to come into the background. Further influenced warming up the excitement level and leads to the reduction of pressure and to prevent cramping. Moreover, it is warming up to deal with nervousness. Fighting spirit is liberated by the constant ritual and in team sports, it is also to strengthen the team spirit. If the warm-operated very intensively, so that there are already some of this pain, it will increase the endorphins and the athlete, after warming up in the short time of rest very motivated and happy.
Warming up should be designed so that the body's core temperature rises slowly, and there are no signs of fatigue. The dosage depends on the weather (unless the sport is played outdoors) and time of day, also on the age and condition of the athlete from. The duration of the warm-up can not be determined exactly, since it depends on when exercising sport, the training status of the athlete, his daily condition and personal preferences. Generally one can say that an average duration einzukalkulieren 10 to 20 minutes for warming up.
The time interval from the warm-up to the competition should be in the ideal case, a maximum of 5 minutes. Well-insulated and heat-retaining clothing the athletes will indeed given after eg 20 minutes it felt to be warm, but this is not the whole. The increase in body temperature may, depending on muscle mass and fitness level of the athlete, perhaps even stop up to one hour. But the most important effect of warming, namely the increase in blood flow (and thus the oxygen and nutrients) of the muscles, after about 5 minutes already decayed and no longer sufficient.
A conscientious and sufficient warm-up is essential in general for every sport. Which techniques and how long you should warm up, and the time between the warm-up and performance will always depend on the chosen sport and personal factors. Therefore, it is always advisable for beginners to look for a good and experienced coach, who accompanied them in the first years of her sporting career and guide.
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